Personality is the factor responsible for enabling a psychological order in behaviour and gives direction to behaviour. The personality of an individual is the product of a process of development. The interaction of needs, among themselves, results in the formation of sentiments. The former were mostly academics working in universities and colleges, following the “analytical and elemental approach” of classical ‘pure’ science, while most of the authors of type theories were practising psychiatrists or clinical psychologists, or psychoanalysts, whose main concern was diagnosis, classification and treatment. A passer-by who carries some liquid on his head in a pot suddenly drops the pot and the young man is drenched. Murray. After a series of efforts he arrived at a very simple test. What are the main differences among them? This part of the enquiry consists of an analysis of the actual contents of the responses, whether the responses refer to human beings or animals, whether they are descriptions of moving objects or stationary objects, animate objects or inanimate objects and so on. Human personality is what makes a person distinctive, unique, and exceptional. The events taking place inside the body particularly within the brain an. Certain factors and conditions like severe anxiety, stress, traumatic experiences, etc. But it is not always used in such a way in modem psychology. The use of questionnaires to measure personality was first introduced by Woodworth for use in the American army during the First World War. Mukherjee has developed a sentence completion test to measure achievement motivation. In India, considerable work has been done on the Children’s Apperception Test by Uma Chowdary. Describe Your Personality. Based on the above indicators, psychologists who are well-trained in the interpretation of the Rorschach test are able to assess personalities. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Psychology. The Thematic Apperception Test developed by him to assess personality on the basis of his theory is one of the most widely used tools of measurement and research in psychology. It is called the CAT or the Children’s Apperception Test. Extended essay scoring rubric 2018 essay on why college is expensive. The situations under which the ratings are made should also be carefully selected and designed to provide adequate data. Thus ’empathy’ is a very important quality, for understanding the other person. Questionnaires and projective tests try to study and measure personality by using verbal data. Another common technique of measuring personality is through questionnaires and inventories. 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Another possible error is when, in an analytic rating procedure, a rater carries over his rating from one trait to another. Human rights are extremely important for the overall development of a country and individuals on a personal level. Similarly, if a young man thinks of an ideal young woman and dreams about her, such a picture is very much of a fact in the psychological space, though such an ideal woman may not exist at all as a physical reality. While the two approaches share many things in common, there are also differences. Philosophers and scientists belong to the thinking type, artists to the feeling type, fashion-makers to the sensation type and mystics to the intuitive type. While the points mentioned above, help us to understand the nature of personality, there is another aspect of the issue yet to be explained. The mechanisms of imitation and identification which play an important role in the development of personality make it necessary that adults should set proper examples for the younger generation. Each boy went through different, Human potential is a concept that was introduced by early personality theorists many years ago, and it implies that as humans, we have an innate tendency toward personal growth and development, and under the right circumstances, this tendency will lead us to actualize our potential and become all that we can be (Deci, Ryan, & Guay, 2013, p. 109). Similar programmes of behaviour change and skill learning have also been developed for adults. There has been a fear expressed that laying too much emphasis on concepts like “self” may take us back to a soul psychology which was discarded long back. Other notable examples are the Word Association Test, The Human Figure Drawing Test, The Word Test, The Mosaic Test, The House Tree Person Test, etc. From the responses or ratings inference is made about the personality. The reader is already familiar with the distinction between structure and content. Human health is defined as the state of well-being with regards to the mental, physical and social aspects of the human condition. According to Lewin, we cannot make a categorical distinction between personality and behaviour. 10. In fact, many tests of personality have also been based on this principle. Separate personality inventories for children, adults and different populations have been developed. It is based on Murray’s theory of personality. Thus, a young child who returns from school and has his milk moves into the region of play. Psychodynamic Approach to Personality: Essay # 6. 5. A person cannot be called healthy merely because of the absence of disease; he or she needs to be doing well in all ways to actually qualify as healthy. Personality, according to this approach, is descriptive rather than explanatory, and static rather than dynamic. Muthaiah has developed a similar test. The concept of ‘self develops gradually and the most crucial thing for the development of a healthy personality is the degree of “congruence” or agreement between an individual’s ‘self-concept’ and ‘self-triggered’ expectation on one hand, and the actual experience of the person on the other. The Human Personality essays. The personality of an individual can be described and measured. Lewin’s view of personality is that it is a gradually emerging system, which gets differentiated within the life space and yet maintains permeability between the two. In many instances, the term personality is used in an evaluative sense. Functional analysis would therefore go in for careful observation of the behaviour, the situation under which it occurs, study how it has been reinforced in the past, and finally decide upon a more adaptive response like ‘assertive behaviour’, plan a schedule of reinforcement and establish the same behaviour. This resulted in a discarding of the simple ‘sum-total’ concept of personality and postulation of certain schemes of organisation, and hierarchical order. Bandura calls the latter self-efficacy. Behavioural Approach to Personality: Essay # 8. This is called validity. This is a very complicated task. We may, therefore, say that even though we may study individual processes like perception, learning, etc. There is a good deal of agreement among most psychologists on these points. It is the total and overall description of a person. So far we have considered ratings and questionnaires as tools for measuring personality. It consists of 30 cards, each representing pictorially and rather vaguely, a few people in interaction. Privacy Policy3. One way of approaching it is to rate the personality as a whole or as a totality, taking into account different attributes or qualities. For example. I believe that chummy, outgoing, talkative, smiley, funny, and reserved at times describe me. Further, it has also been criticised as being based purely on the subjective views of individual psychologists. (c) What are the events and developments that have led to the present situation? For example, one may see a bird, a tiger skin, and two men dancing in a single ink blot. He defined personality as an aspect that consists of the collection of human behaviors in a certain environment. The novel proves that humans need society to survive. Some people would not like to receive credit or win easily without working hard. Migram’s research study indicates very powerful role the situation may play in human personality. Here, the term is used to describe the nature of his own response with no reference to his effect on the describer. According to Murray the basic units of personality are ‘needs’. The pioneering effort in the development of projective testing was made by Herman Rorschach. It's always interested me, and it didn't take me a lot of time to see that, in order to understand people better, I should start with understanding myself. This method is called the rating method. The type approach, looked for ‘broad, typical and characteristic patterns of behaviour to classify people.’. We are familiar with the intimate relationship between psychology and the other social sciences like anthropology and sociology. Personality traits are durable dispositions of behaviour that occur across a variety of situations. While the ink blots essentially remain the same, variations have been introduced to enable administration of the test to a group of people, provision of multiple choice alternative responses from which the individual has to choose and also in techniques of interpretation. This was noted by the great Greek physician Hippocrates as long ago as 400BC (2400 years ago!). Traits are in contrast to states which are more transitory dispositions, psychoanalysis began his work in the 1880’s, treating the chaos of hysteria first, listening to his patients talk through their problems. When the subject completes responding to all the cards, there is an enquiry. When we say that every individual has a personality it is natural to think of the basic characteristics of this personality which constantly influence the person’s behaviour. If these conditions are taken care of, then rating is a useful procedure. It is assumed that while being engaged in the above activities a person reveals one’s constant and stable styles of behaviour and also one’s needs. According to him, the world will come to a disastrous end soon, and therefore there is no point in trying to improve things or people. As a result of this interaction between one’s self-actualizing tendency and others evaluation, gradually the individual develops a ‘self-regard’. Similarly doubts have been expressed as to whether, all aspects of the personality are ‘learnt’. However, the dynamic view has come to find more acceptance than the static view. In the use of this term, we may see that the following implications are involved: 1. Based on the concept of operant conditioning. The study of the growth and development of the human personality is called a. social psychology. Especially when the measure involves a large number of people. For example, it is possible that a person who has a high sense of humour may not give expression to it at a particular time. This perspective focuses largely on the internal genetic makeup of an individual and the effects this has on his or her personality. His observation was, “no brain, no personality”. [1] According to this perspective, traits are relatively stable over time, differ across individuals (e.g. There are certain organising and integrating processes which help to combine and weave these individual processes into the behaviour of a person. He classifies needs into ‘Viscerogenic ‘and. Thirdly the questions or items should measure personality and not anything else. Of course, these approaches have been more recent in origin, and have constantly been resisting all attempts to reduce behaviour to physiological characteristics or even to psychological units like traits. Human resources personal statement for 800 score gmat essay Careful, systematic attention to the author. Home; Subjects; Other; UNDERSTANDING HUMAN BEINGS; Nobody downloaded yet. Here, instead of the total personality, a number of attributes or qualities are individually rated and these individual ratings are summed up. For ensuring a normal life there should be definite distinction between the inner person region and outer environmental region, failing which self-object relationship cannot be established. Personality is the characteristics and traits that define a human being. But this does not mean that it is unchanging. To a great extent, principles and techniques used to measure intelligence and aptitude have found their way into personality measurement also. In such instances psychologists employ indirect measures and what are more popularly known as projective tests. are analysed. And this will result in a poor rating on this quality. In other cases, the questions may be given without alternative answers and the person can answer them in his or her own words, thus being able to answer more freely. Here the material used is verbal. It may seem strange for some people to not want to wear their seat belt but it is just because they have a different personality. One of the best known theories of this category is the theory of Carl Rogers. These approaches, though they appear to be very adequate from the point of view of characteristics of human behaviour, suffer from vagueness and lack of clarity in contrast to the trait and type approaches. However, even though they are influenced by cultural, social and economic factors they are easy and useful instruments. There are two ways in which a subject can be told to answer these. Rosenzweig developed an adult form and a children’s form of this test. Consistency in behaviour results from repeated learning of certain behavioural patterns, resulting in stimulus generalisation and response generalization. In psychology, the term personality is used to mean a hypothetical construct or an agency which explains the integration of different behavioural processes resulting in meaningful behaviour in such a way so as to make one person different from others. (iv) Rosen Zweig’s Picture Frustration Test: This test was developed by Saul Rosenzweig, not as a test of personality but as a tool to study people’s reaction to frustration. But, nevertheless, it cannot be said that the present day psychologists have been able to either discover or unravel all the facts and mysteries of personality. Further, it is not possible to make a distinction between behaviour and personality. Through most of human history, it has been assumed (correctly, I sincerely believe) that people come in four basic personality types, or "temperaments". (a) Perceptual organisation of a given stimulus; (d) Construction of certain situations from a given set of objects. The trait approach and type approach belong to this category. Some psychologists have, therefore, concerned themselves with the identification of such basic characteristics of personality, describing and measuring them. The personality of an ‘individual’ is a totality and not divisible into units. An individual’s psychological space need not exactly be compared to the physical space or order of things. Personality These types of laws are there because someone else says that it is wrong to do these things. Research in these areas brought to light an important point, namely, that personality is not just a static fact. Therefore, they need to overcome those feelings (Croake, 1975). (b) The same ‘facts’ or ‘events’ are interpreted by each person differently. Observations . The Jungian personality test showed that my personality type, the INFP, is a mediator (Jung, 1998). Some of the points on which general agreement has been reached are mentioned below: 1. A person with a stable personality generally responds in a calm and quiet manner even under stressful situations, in contrast to a person with an unstable personality. Each picture depicts two persons, one of them facing a frustrating situation. Personality is defined as the characteristic sets of behaviors, cognitions, and emotional patterns that evolve from biological and environmental factors. This is called objectivity. It is further assumed that from the observations and responses all aspects of personality, can be directly observed and measured; hence these are called direct measures of personality. There are many psychological definitions which attempt to explain personality in terms of characteristics or typical qualities of an individual. Category: Essays and Paragraphs On July 18, 2019 By Ananda. Today, most of the psychologists agree that a personality of the individual is not just a description of different qualities or characteristics. Some psychologists have criticised these tests because the inference drawn from such tests leads to a lot of confusion and even subjectivity. They avoid the responsibility and give only middle-level ratings to everyone. This is known as the global approach, which has the advantage of giving a total assessment of each person. In life, humans rely on society to keep them in tact and instruct them on what to do. When we describe a person as an ‘anxious’ personality, the reference here is to the quality of anxiety which is found to be predominant in him. However, a number of other techniques, exclusive to the field of personality measurement have also been developed. For this purpose, tests are designed in such a way that defence mechanisms are operative at a minimal level. A typical personality questionnaire consists of a number of questions which the respondent has to answer. Based on their surrounding, humans can simply accept nature, deal with their situation, For example, when one describes a person as an honest person or a good person, one is passing a judgement on that person’s behaviour with reference to certain standards or norms of behaviour. ESSAY SERVICES; BIOGRAPHY WRITING SERVICES; LOGIN; MAKE ORDER; My account Order now Order Now. We may now briefly deal with some of the more important techniques of personality measurement: Observation of a phenomenon is probably the most natural way of measuring basic psychological processes and personality is no exception. Trying to do this is trying to change one’s human personality. have been employed to measure personality. Here, one can see that an individual behaves in a particular manner because his or her personality is of such a nature. Thus, if items measuring intelligence are put into these questionnaires, to that extent, we will be measuring intelligence and not personality. According to Kelly, an individual, in the course of his growth and development comes to develop certain expectations, about events, things and the behaviour of others. Over the years, however, several psychologists have found it necessary to change this descriptive and static concept of personality. It is this consistency which makes behaviour predictable. may lead to the disorganization and disintegration of personality. In each picture one such situation is depicted and a blank space is left near the frustrated person. Sometimes the term personality is used to describe the effect a person has on others. Some examples of items in such inventories are given below: Subsequently a number of personality inventories and questionnaires were developed. That being said, Freud linked everything with sex. TOS4. Abstract c. humanistic psychology. Thus, needs, sentiments, themes, etc. Every person has a different personality and some personalities mesh better than others. The exact technique of measurement used, depends on the purpose envisaged, the type of person whose personality is being assessed, the preferences, and biases of the particular psychologist. The researches and findings of the psychologists with different approaches have, in-spite of their differences, contributed to the emergence of certain generalisations. But to create laws to prevent rapes from occurring is unjust. He further classified needs into ‘focal’ and ‘diffused’, ‘pro-active’ and ‘reactive’. Since the behavioural approach basically depends on conscious information given by individuals, in response to behavioural tasks such information may not be as “deep” as elicited by personality tests. Here is a compilation of essays on ‘Personality’ for class 9, 10, 11 and 12. The emphasis in explaining behaviour is on the current psychological situations and not on the past history, as advocated by the psychoanalysis and behaviourism. The theory is based on a speculation, Changes in human personality in relation to lack of society Such questionnaires are called open-ended or unstructured. Though Rotter, Bandura and others have incorporated terms like ‘expectancy’ these are also treated as “conditioned implicit responses” rather than enduring dispositions. Though this movement is of recent origin, behavioural measures of personality have been found to be very useful, especially in studying the personalities of psychotic patients and even neurotic patients. The view of Carl Rogers is examined under the topic of self. Generally, when a large number of people are to be tested in a short time and when these people are sufficiently educated, a structured questionnaire is used. This test consists of 24 cartoons or stick-pictures. The responses are analysed for indications of one’s personality. Many of us must have used this term quite often. But a global assessment requires that the persons carrying out the assessments have the ability to make accurate and comprehensive observations. At the same time, the minimal amount of structuring helps in bringing out certain definite contents. Examples of laws like this would be: wearing a seat belt, the possession of guns, the right to abortion, and the ability to buy alcohol on Sundays. Thus, when we define a person as rigid, reserved and so on, it is obvious that we are thinking of these basic features as adjectives which describe the person. The behaviouristic approach basically holds the view that psychology should do away with concepts like mind, self, consciousness, etc. While lending consistency and organisation to behaviour, personality also lends a sense of uniqueness or ‘individuality’ to behaviour. For example, it was shown that people with a certain type of personality react in a characteristic manner to certain situations. The behaviouristic views of Skinner and Watson, tried to explain all human behaviour as a result of “learning” in response to external events, stimuli and experiences. We may, therefore, attempt a tentative definition of the term personality. Usually a layman uses the term personality to describe the response or behaviour of a person. An example of such a test is the Ascendance-Submission Test developed by Allport. These programmes and suggestions are mostly based on principles of operant conditioning and modelling. Q&A GPA Calculator Thesis Generator Essay Topic Generator Free Essay Topics Study Guides Donate Paper. The TAT is another test which is used extensively. In a way, they explain personality as a ‘sum total’ of habits. Over the years, psychologists have developed a number of questionnaires which have been thoroughly tested for their reliability and validity. Writing a justified description of your personality is quite a task. A number of incom­plete sentences are given and the individual is required to complete them. Eng 11A Jacob Seeliger Assessment: Analyzing Personal Essays RI.11-12.1 Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain. Just as in physics and chemistry we look for atoms and molecules, and for different types of cells in biology, similarly, in the study of personality this question becomes relevant. In addition, a number of other criteria are also used. The term personality, therefore, explains both generality, and individuality in behaviour. They are based on the verbal responses of the person and on the assumption that personality is something underlying and is to be inferred. The type approach, though not primarily analytical looking for specific elements like traits was concerned with classifying persons into different types, based on certain broad and general patterns of behaviour, like extroversion and introversion. Firstly, each question may be followed by certain alternative responses and the person has to respond by choosing the one which is nearest to what he feels is the truth. A response based on the total blot is called ‘W. The difference between the trait and type approaches, is that the latter was not concerned about analysis of the entire personality with identifiable elements and arriving at a universal catalogue of traits. 6. For example, if a person is rated as good in communication, the rater may tend to carry over this impression in rating the person on alertness also. At the same time, it has also come in for criticism. Further, this pattern or organisation extends across situations, with the result that every person behaves with a certain degree of consistency and at the same time behaves in a manner different from others. These blots were selected after trying out a number of variations. Every human being is unique. Facebook 0 Twitter 0 Google+ 0 Viber WhatsApp. A pessimist on the other hand is a “prophet of doom”. (f) The personality of another person can be understood only if we can look at the world through the other person’s eyes. Affected by climate change short Essay personality on human rights are extremely important for parents, teachers and others robbery! Achievement motivation by psychologists like Ames learnt behavioural patterns in an analytic rating procedure, a rater carries over rating... Determines human personality essay ’ s personality above problems, another approach, known as projective tests large number of are. 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